Happy 300th Birthday, Thomas Chippendale!

Chippendale Tercentenary: 1718 – 2018

The style of furniture referred to as Chippendale stems from an evolution of various styles in fashion in the last half of the 18th Century. The first ever to be named for a cabinetmaker rather than bearing the name of a reigning monarch, Chippendale eventually became the most famous name in the history of English furniture when this type of craftsmanship was at its high point.

Thomas Chippendale was born on June 4, 1718 in the market town of Otley, Yorkshire. He was apprenticed to his cabinetmaker father and later worked as a journeyman to Robert Wood of York. He later moved to London and established his own shop and workrooms.

The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker’s Director by Thomas Chippendale via the Internet Archive

In 1754 he published a book of designs titled The Gentlemen and Cabinet Maker’s Director. Under the title on the first page, Chippendale describes the book as:

“Being a Large Collection of the Most Elegant and Useful Designs of Household Furniture in the Gothic, Chinese and Modern Taste and Other Ornaments…”

 A pattern book, Chippendale’s Director was used by many other cabinetmakers and the designs were adapted by artisans in England, on the European continent and in the American Colonies. The success of this book led to his reputation as one of the leading cabinetmakers of the 18th Century.

He published three editions in 1754, 1755 and 1762. Each edition revealed Chippendale’s designs evolving, reflecting changing British tastes and fashion. By the last edition, his designs began to exhibit signs of neo-classicism. This trend was influenced by the renewed interest in classical motifs such as columns, Acanthus leaves, fluting and Greek key. Particularly in the designs of architect Robert Adam with whom he worked on several projects, and the Palladian architecture of the early 18th Century.

The Director illustrated four main styles:

  • English with deep carving, the curved Cabriole leg often carved with shells, vines and leaves, and scrolls at the knee.
  • Elaborate French Rococo.
  • Chinese style, referred to as Chinoiserie, with latticework and lacquer, and on some case pieces, adorned with elaborate japanning.
  • Gothic with pointed arches, quatrefoils and fret-worked legs.

Chippendale intended his book as a catalogue where his wealthy clients could choose their preferred design elements from the various plates of illustrations. These pieces would then be custom-made for them in his workshop, or in the workshops of other artisan cabinetmakers.

Versatility was a hallmark of the firm of Thomas Chippendale. Not only was he a cabinetmaker, but he also functioned as an interior designer. Chippendale designed wallpaper, carpets, fire grates, decorative objects and complete room layouts. He rented furniture and did repairs. He even directed and furnished funerals for his clients.

Thomas Chippendale advised his clients on all manner of decor including the paint colors. His firm acted like a modern interior design firm coordinating with other specialists. Fully decorated rooms as well as entire houses were supplied. He furnished not only elegant state apartments, but servant’s quarters and offices were given his creative touch.

Chippendale used only the finest mahogany from the West Indies. He always used solid wood rather than employing veneers. The richest, most luxurious brocades, velvets and damasks were applied on upholstered pieces. A number of stately homes in England have been identified where Chippendale’s designs and furniture constructed in his workrooms are on view.

American cabinetmakers of the 18th Century were well-aware of Thomas Chippendale’s Director. The illustrated engravings inspired much of the best work done in the American Colonies. Newport, Boston, New York and Philadelphia were the predominant centers for craftsmen of Chippendale furniture.

There was usually a lag time of about 20 years between what was fashionable in Europe and when it appeared in America. Marvin D. Schwartz states in his book Chairs, Tables, Sofas and Beds: “The claw-and-ball foot was considered too old-fashioned to be included in Chippendale’s design illustrations, but it was a popular feature in American designs.”

Arthur Johnson, Chippendale Mahogany Side Chair, American, active c. 1935, 1936, watercolor, gouache, and graphite on paperboard, Index of American Design

Cabinetmakers adapted designs from popular Chinese imports with imaginative interpretations. The claw-and-ball foot was carved to represent a bird’s claw holding a ball. It was based on an image of a Chinese dragon’s claw holding a crystal jewel.

Queen Anne and Chippendale styles share many of the Rococo elements such as the Cabriole leg, so it can be difficult to distinguish between them. According to Marvin Schwartz: “American Chippendale furniture, whether simple or elaborate, was much lighter in its proportions than Queen Anne designs. Forms did not change much but became more ornamental.”

Thomas Chippendale adapted and blended earlier furniture styles, designs and decorative elements. The Chippendale style was dominant in American furniture until 1780-1785.

18th Century Chippendale furniture, particularly designs by renowned American cabinetmakers, commands very high prices. According to John Nye, Director of the American Furniture Department at Sotheby’s, New York: “…today’s collectors need to be cautious of any piece of Chippendale furniture that doesn’t have a four to seven figure price tag, especially for pieces made in Philadelphia. If it’s not appropriately priced, the dealer knows it’s not 18th Century.”

At auction, American Chippendale often brings higher prices than its English counterpart. As Schwartz states: “American Chippendale furniture was consistent and elegant—not merely a provincial adaptation of its English namesake.”

Original 18th Century antiques in fine condition are rare and usually not affordable for most people. For those who appreciate the Chippendale style, later reproductions of 1876, referred to as Centennial pieces, and the late Victorian era around 1900 are more readily available. These are still considered antiques, and though they may not be handcrafted with the fine details of original period furniture, they are a good and far less costly alternative for collectors who like this style.

300 years later, the Chippendale style is still an influence in modern formal furniture design. As Pamela Wiggins says in her article on Chippendale Style Furniture: “Some modern pieces completely copy older designs while others derive inspiration from this classic style melding them with modern influences.”

drawing of Chippendale mirror, via the Internet Archive

In honor of Thomas Chippendale’s 300th birthday, New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art has arranged an exhibition, Chippendale’s Director: The Designs and Legacy of a Furniture Maker. It runs from May 14, 2018 to January 27, 2019 and the exhibit showcases works from the Met collection. On view are original drawings from Chippendale’s workshop, a selection of British and American furniture reflecting his designs and aesthetic, and Revival pieces of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well. One of the highlights of the exhibit is the Chippendale-inspired chair designed in 1984 by architects Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown.  Information about the exhibit and ticket purchasing can be found on the Met website.

In England, through December 28, 2018, institutions and historic houses have joined together to create programs of exhibitions, events and tours to celebrate Thomas Chippendale’s Tercentenary. This provides a wonderful opportunity to see Chippendale’s furniture and designs in their original settings in these stately and aristocratic homes. Information about this wide-ranging presentation can be found on the website www.chippendale300.uk.co.

If you plan to be in New York or England this fall, take advantage of these exceptional events. After all, how often do you get to celebrate a 300th birthday in such elegant surroundings.

Sources

English Furniture From Gothic to Sheraton, Herbert Cescinsky,

Bonanza Books, New York, 1968

Field Guide to American Antique Furniture, Joseph T. Butler

Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1985

American Chairs. Queen Anne and Chippendale, John T. Kirk

Alfred Knopf. New York, 1972

Flashback: Chippendale Designs as Reflected in English and American Furniture, Thomas Hamilton Ormsbee, Reprint of Article Published in the June 1941 Issue of the American Collector (1933-1943), Collectors Weekly. April 22, 2009

Chippendale: The Royalty of Antique Furniture, Bob Bowers

The Antiques Almanac. 2018

Online Resource for Information about Antiques and Collectibles for Dealers and Collectors.  www.theantiquealmanac.com

Chippendale Style Furniture, Learn How to Identify a Popular Period Style

Pamela Wiggins. December 28, 2017, www.thesprucecrafts.com

Chippendale’s Director: The Designs and Legacy of a Furniture Maker

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. May 14, 2018–January 27, 2019

Programs of Exhibitions and Events to Celebrate Thomas Chippendale’s Tercentenary.  February-December 2018

www.chippendale300.co.uk

Chippendale buffet
Chippendale buffet

Egyptomania Redux

bust of Egyptian Pharaoh Tuntankhamen

The word redux has its root in the Latin verb reducere meaning to lead back, something brought back, or a resurgence.

Southern California will soon be seeing a “resurgence” giving us a new chance to view some of the greatest artifacts of Ancient Egypt in a major exhibition entitled King Tut: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh.  The exhibit, the first of a 10-city world tour, will open in Los Angeles on March 24, 2018 at the California Science Center in Exposition Park and will be on view until early January 2019.

This exhibit will be the largest world tour ever, comprising 150 artifacts.  The previous tours had a limit of 50 objects.  Many of these King Tut treasures have never been seen outside of Egypt. It will be the last time to view these artifacts before their return to Egypt to be housed permanently in the new Egyptian Museum.  The purpose of the tour is to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of King Tutankhamen’s tomb by archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922.

Featuring items owned and used by the “Boy King” (he is thought to have been 19 at the time of his death), the exhibit will include golden jewelry, carvings, sculptures and ritual artifacts. In addition, multimedia displays include how the scientific analysis of the 3000-year old mummy has revealed new information on his health and ancestry.  It also addresses how the latest in archaeology tools are aiding in the discovery of new tombs and in the analyzing of existing ones in new ways.

There have been several waves of Egyptian Revival throughout the last two centuries.  The discovery of the Rosetta Stone during Napoleon’s 1798-99 Egyptian campaign was the key to deciphering ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics.  The publication of volumes in 1809 cataloging the sights and discoveries of the eventually ill-fated campaign ignited the creation of the field of Egyptology.  A second edition in 1830 elicited further interest in Egyptian art and culture.

Egyptian inspired chairs

Egyptian inspired buildings were erected in Paris during the decade after Napoleon’s campaign.  Ancient Egyptian art and architecture provided designers in France and England with a wide range of motifs.  Winged sun-disks, hawks and crocodiles were all incorporated into decorative arts and architecture.  An Egyptian dining room was created (1802-1806) at Goodwood House in Sussex for the Duke of Richmond.  It was the first interior in England that had its origin from the illustrations of ancient Egyptian monuments by the artist who had accompanied Napoleon to Egypt.  A number of motifs were applied architecturally and to the design of the furniture in the room.  The dining chairs had bronze crocodile figures inserted into their backs.

In America, Egyptian influence during these early years was primarily architectural.  Egyptian revival architecture in America can be seen in Benjamin Latrobe’s original design (not built) for the Library of Congress Room in the new Capitol (1808), the 4th Precinct Police Station in New Orleans (1836), The Tombs in New York City (1838), and the Washington Monument (1850) as well as in many other public and private buildings in cities and towns across America. There is a 3500-year old Egyptian obelisk, Cleopatra’s Needle, in New York City’s Central Park.  Egyptian themes, however, didn’t begin to be evident in the decorative arts until the end of the 19th century.

After the Civil War, Americans became interested in other cultures.  Designers and artists looked to Japan, the Middle East and Africa for new ideas.  Egyptian motifs were combined with more traditional western styles and the result incorporated details such as gilt-bronze sphinxes, textiles woven with Egyptian themes, geometric depictions of palm fronds, lotus blossoms and reeds.

The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Verdi’s 1871 opera Aida and continued archaeological discoveries, particularly the excavation at Tel El-Amarna in 1887, kept the public’s awareness and interest focused on Egypt.

Medallion with Egyptian Scarab motif

Egyptian symbols and images translated well into the decorative arts and this aesthetic found its way into jewelry and silver designs.  At the turn of the 20th century as the Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau styles became popular, Egyptian motifs appeared in jewelry, textiles, wallpaper and other decorative arts, providing an exotic alternative to the conventional and traditional styles of the time.

Scholars refer to these periods as Egyptomania – an obsession with Egyptian antiquities and design.  However, there would not be another major one until the discovery of King Tut’s Tomb in 1922.  Egyptian motifs began to be seen everywhere in modern culture and became an essential element in Art Deco design and architecture, carrying on into the 1930’s and early 1940’s.

The phenomenon continued to grip the world fueled by the rumors of a curse related to the death of Lord Caernarvon, who had financed Carter’s search for the tomb.  According to Robert Nemeth, an English architectural historian and conservationist:

“The discovery was still in the early days for Art Deco which took its name from the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts and Modern Industries held in Paris in 1925.  Designers of the time were enamored by the brilliant colors, angular shapes, hieroglyphics and mysterious symbols prevalent in ancient Egypt. These design features were incorporated into Art Deco furniture, art, clothing, jewelry and architecture.”

It will be interesting to see if the upcoming King Tut Exhibition will be the catalyst for a new wave of Egyptomania in design and the decorative arts.  As an appraiser, it is important for us to understand the forces in the marketplace that affect value.  An event like this may cause an increase in demand for items with these motifs.

SOURCES

Egyptian Revival. Sara Jakow, Institute of Fine Arts. N.Y., 2012

Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Experience “King Tut: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh at California Science Center

Victoria and Albert Museum

Treasures of Tutankhamen. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Exhibition Catalogue. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1976

Pinterest – Egyptian Revival Jewelry – 412 Images

Art Nouveau and Art Deco Jewelry, An Identification and Value Guide.  Lillian Baker. Collector Books. Paducah, Kentucky, 1981.

Gilt bronze figure of an Egyptian cat

There Will Be Art – PST: LA/LA

This exploration of Latin American and Latino art, led by the Getty Museum, includes more than 70 exhibitions across Southern California. Art and cultural institutions from Los Angeles to Palm Springs, and from San Diego to Santa Barbara are taking part in “thematically linked exhibitions and program highlighting different aspects of Latin American and Latino art from the ancient world to the present day.”

On the introduction page of a small booklet, billed as a travel guide to the Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA experience, is an overview of the exhibition’s purpose: “With topics as varied as luxury arts in the Pre-Colombian Americas, 20th-century Afro-Brazilian art, alternative spaces in Mexico City, the mural tradition, and the boundary-crossing practices of Latino artists, exhibitions range from mono graphic studies of individual artists to broad surveys involving countries throughout Latin America.”

This wide-ranging exhibition opened at the end of September 2017 and dates for closing vary by institution. Some events close at the end of January and others continue on into the spring of 2018.

Ancient Aztec calendar

Golden Kingdoms: Luxury and Legacy in the Ancient Americas

Showcasing spectacular luxury arts from the Royal courts of the Maya, Incas and Aztecs.  The Getty Center – through January 28, 2018.

 

Merged Flag of USA and Mexico painted on concrete.

Found in Translation: Design in California and Mexico 1915-1985

This is the first exhibition to examine design trends between California and Mexico that shaped the architecture and material culture of each place.  LACMA – until April 1, 2018

 

Mexican mural painting, California

California Mexicana: Missions to Murals 1820-1930

Exploration of how part of Mexico became California and the role of the visual arts in creating distinct pictorial motifs and symbols that helped define the new California.  Laguna Art Museum – until January 14, 2018.

 

Kukuli Velardi – Artist

Personal and confrontational ceramic sculptures based on traditional forms and surface decorations of Pre-Colombian ceramics.  American Museum of Ceramic Art Pomona –  until January 28, 2018.

Kinesthesia Latin American Kinetic Art, 1954-1969

Palm Springs Art Museum – until January 18, 2018.

A Search for Living Architecture: Albert Frey and Lina LoBardi

Explores the visionary building and design of two mid-century architects who shared a belief that architecture is a way to connect people, nature, building and living.  Palm Springs Art Museum Architecture and Design Center – until January 7, 2018.

Everyone is encouraged to visit familiar as well as new institutions. As the introduction states “Wherever your journey takes you, there will be art.”

The website pacificstandardtime.org has a full and up-to-date list of all the exhibitions, events and locations.

As a result of Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA, more than 60 new illustrated exhibition catalogues have been published and are available from Southern California bookstores and individual museums. The publications are “…a permanent legacy of the ground-breaking scholarship on Latin American and Latin art generated through more than five years of planning, research and collaborative work among hundreds of curators, artists and scholars.”  A complete list can be viewed at assets.contentful.com. Additional details and descriptions of selected catalogs can be found on the website artfixdaily.com.

As a personal property appraiser, it is important to be aware of major exhibitions.  They may have an impact on the collecting community, influence trends and affect values.

Print Source

There Will Be 70+ Exhibitions Across Southern California.  There Will Be Art.

Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA.  Latin American and Latino Art in LA.

Presenting Sponsors:  The Getty Museum and Bank of America

Contains complete list of sites, events and themes including a location map.  Available from the Getty Museum.

 

Palm Springs and Mid-Century Modernism

Mid-century modern room

As early as the 1920s, the Coachella Valley, and particularly Palm Springs, became known for the dry clear climate and mild warm winters which were so helpful to those recuperating from serious respiratory conditions. Wealthy people from all over the country, wishing to escape the winter snows and cold, soon began to value the area for relaxation and fun and as a place to enjoy the stark beauty and contrast of the scenic wonders the desert offered.

Soon the area became a get-away playground for the Hollywood elite and the stars created their own burgeoning movie colony here in the desert. Palm Springs became a safe retreat from the prying eyes of the “paparazzi” of those days. The stars could stroll down the main streets and enjoy themselves in the restaurants and watering holes in relative comfort confident in being fairly anonymous.

Even though numerous spas and resorts sprung up to accommodate the visitors, many of the “snowbirds” and movie stars began to build second homes. Because these homes were not the primary residences of the occupants, the owners felt that they had more freedom to take architectural risks in the designs. The uniqueness of the desert landscape and environment and the luminous, rich, clear and strong light required an architecture that was sophisticated and understated – one that would blend with the spectacular austereness and palette of the desert.

The desert was a blank canvas to the architect, open to creative and innovative approaches in new lines, angles, and textures that worked with the environment. It inspired artists to work with, blending and contrasting, the natural materials in abundance around them.

Dolly Faibyshev states in her book Palm Springs Mid-Century Modern, that Palm Springs has one of the largest concentrations of mid-century modern architecture in the country. Many of the most famous architects of the period were inspired by the desert environment. With commissions from film stars, private wealthy patrons, and corporations, architects of the caliber of Richard Neutra, Donald Wexler, John Lautner, Paul Williams, William Krisel, and A. Quincy Jones, among many other notables, were able to envision, design and play with new and innovative architectural features.

The style emphasized creating structures with broad generous windows and open floor plans, all to the intention of opening up interior spaces and bringing the outside in. The novel post and beam design eliminated the need for heavy and bulky support walls in favor of walls that seemed to be made of glass. The idea was one of “clean simplicity and integration with nature”. In mid-century designs, function did not follow form, it was as important as form.

The mid-century modern movement in the United States was an American reflection of the International Style and the Bauhas movements which had held sway in early 20th century modern architecture. In the 1940’s, the term was used to describe a dissatisfaction with the prevalent styles in modern architecture and a reaction to the lack of variety of Mies van der Rohe and LeCorbusier. Surface ornament and historical references began to re-emerge and influence decorative forms. The International Style’s architectural orthodoxy was challenged by these new approaches. Mid-century design was used in residential structures with the “goal of bringing modernism to post-war American communities.”

The deserts of Palm Springs offered architects and designers fertile and virtually untouched ground for their experimentation with and development of fresh and innovative forms of design. An outstanding example is the work of A. Quincy Jones, the architect and designer of the Walter Annenberg estate, Sunnylands.

mid-century modern chair, style of Bertoia

Palm Springs celebrates its heritage with Modernism Week, February 15-25, 2018, a very popular and always sold-out event. Fortunately, there is a Fall Preview from October 19-22, 2017. Although also a popular event, it gives a brief overview of the full two-weeks taking place in February. The Mission of Modernism Week is to celebrate and foster appreciation of mid-century architecture, design, art, fashion, and culture. A list of events and tours can be found on the site modernismweekly.com. Tickets can be purchased online and are for sale now. The online store also offers many books, prints, photographs and objects relating to the event and to all aspects of mid-century modernism.

As a personal property appraiser, it’s important to recognize mid-century modern furniture and decorative art.  Many of the important designers are highly collectible, and the values for those items have increased over the last several years.

In other events this month, a four-month long showcase of Latin-American and Latino Art entitled Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA is being launched on September 17, 2017. Fifty museums in Southern California will offer free admission on that day. According to the website pacificstandardtime.org, the exhibit is a far-reaching and ambitious exploration of Latin American art in dialogue with Los Angeles. Led by the Getty, it is a collaborative effort from Arts institutions across Southern California. Further information can be found on the website as well as on laist.com.

SOURCES

Julius Shulman: Palm Springs; Michael Stern and Alan Hess, Rizzoli 2008

Desert Modernists: The Architects Who Envisioned Mid-Century Modern Palm Springs, published in collaboration with Modernism Week and Palm Springs Life 2017

Palm Springs Mid-Century Modern; Dolly Faibyshev, Schiffer Publishing, 2010

LA Times Article on Fall Preview: August 1, 2017

moderrnismweekly.com

pacificstandardtime.org

Mid-century modern furniture on 1stdibs

Links to mid-century modern in Palm Springs at Swank Modern Design

 

Modern Italian blown glass vase, style of Venini